Baloxavir Marboxil

Influenza A(H3N2) virus exhibiting reduced susceptibility to baloxavir due to a polymerase acidic subunit I38T substitution detected from a hospitalised child without prior baloxavir treatment, Japan, January 2019

In January 2019, two influenza A(H3N2) viruses carrying an I38T substitution in the polymerase acidic subunit (PA), which confers reduced susceptibility to baloxavir, were detected from epidemiologically unrelated hospitalised children in Japan. The viruses exhibited reduced susceptibility to baloxavir but were susceptible to neuraminidase inhibitors. Only one of the two children had been treated with baloxavir. An epidemiological analysis suggests possible transmission of the PA I38T mutant A(H3N2) virus among humans.

Assessing baloxavir susceptibility of influenza viruses circulating in the United States during the 2016/17 and 2017/18 seasons **

The anti-influenza therapeutic baloxavir targets cap-dependent endonuclease activity of polymerase acidic (PA) protein. We monitored baloxavir susceptibility in the United States with next generation sequencing analysis supplemented by phenotypic one-cycle infection assay. Analysis of PA sequences of 6,891 influenza A and B viruses collected during 2016/17 and 2017/18 seasons showed amino acid substitutions: I38L (two A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses), E23G (two A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses) and I38M (one A(H3N2) virus); conferring 4–10-fold reduced susceptibility to baloxavir.

Detection of influenza A(H3N2) viruses exhibiting reduced susceptibility to the novel cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitor baloxavir in Japan, December 2018**

The novel cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitor baloxavir marboxil was approved for the treatment of influenza virus infection in Japan in February 2018. Two influenza A(H3N2) viruses carrying an I38T substitution in the polymerase acidic subunit (PA) were detected in baloxavir-treated children in December 2018. This mutation is known to confer reduced susceptibility to baloxavir, and the two mutant viruses exhibited 76- and 120-fold reduced susceptibility to baloxavir.

Baloxavir marboxil in Japanese patients with seasonal influenza: Dose response and virus type/subtype outcomes from a randomized phase 2 study** 

Baloxavir marboxil (baloxavir) is an antiviral drug that inhibits the viral “cap-snatching” step in virus RNA transcription initiation. In Phase 2 study, baloxavir significantly shortend the time to alleviation of symptoms (TTAS) and showed significantly greater reduction in influenza virus titer compared with placebo. This provides additional outcomes including efficacy against virus types/subtypes and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) analysis.

Subgroup analyses by virus types/subtype were conducted for the primary and key secondary endpoints. Blood samples were collected totally at 2 to 5 points including Day 2 after baloxavir dosing. PK/PD analyses were conducted for TTAS and change in virus titer using the liner model and the Emax model, respectively.The median TTAS in each baloxavir dose group was significantly shorter than in the placebo group for patients with A/H1N1pdm virus, and was numerically shorter than the placebo group for patients with A/H3N2 and type B virus. Baloxavir significantly reduced virus titer within 1 day after treatment: for A/H1N1pdm, A/H3N2, and B virus, all 3 doses of baloxavir marboxil reduced virus titer on Day 2 to a greater extent than placebo. No clear PK/PD relationships were found for the TTAS, but the larger reduction in virus titer was observed in increasing C24.These results support that baloxavir marboxil will be effective against a range of virus types/subtypes.

Baloxavir marboxil susceptibility of influenza viruses from the Asia-Pacific, 2012-2018.

Baloxavir Marboxil (BXM) is an influenza polymerase inhibitor antiviral that binds to the endonuclease region in the PA subunit of influenza A and B viruses. To establish the baseline susceptibility of viruses circulating prior to licensure of BXM and to monitor for susceptibility post-BXM use, a cell culture-based focus reduction assay was developed to determine the susceptibility of 286 circulating seasonal influenza viruses, A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2), B (Yamagata/Victoria) lineage viruses, including neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) resistant viruses, to Baloxavir Acid (BXA), the active metabolic form of BXM. BXA was effective against all influenza subtypes tested with mean EC50 values (minimum-maximum) of 0.7 ± 0.5 nM (0.1-2.1 nM), 1.2 ± 0.6 nM (0.1-2.4), 7.2 ± 3.5 nM (0.7-14.8), and 5.8 ± 4.5 nM (1.8-15.5) obtained for A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2), B(Victoria lineage), and B(Yamagata lineage) influenza viruses, respectively. Using reverse genetics, amino acid substitutions known to alter BXA susceptibility were introduced into the PA protein resulting in EC50 fold change increases that ranged from 2 to 65. Our study demonstrates that currently circulating viruses are susceptible to BXA and that the newly developed focus reduction assay is well suited to susceptibility monitoring in reference laboratories.

Inhibition of avian-origin influenza A(H7N9) virus by the novel cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitor baloxavir marboxil

Human infections with avian-origin influenza A(H7N9) virus represent a serious threat to global health; however, treatment options are limited. Here, we show the inhibitory effects of baloxavir acid (BXA) and its prodrug baloxavir marboxil (BXM), a first-in-class cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitor, against A(H7N9), in vitro and in vivo. In cell culture, BXA at four nanomolar concentration achieved a 1.5–2.8 log reduction in virus titers of A(H7N9), including the NA-R292K mutant virus and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, whereas NA inhibitors or favipiravir required approximately 20-fold or higher concentrations to achieve the same levels of reduction. A(H7N9)-specific amino acid polymorphism at position 37, implicated in BXA binding to the PA endonuclease domain, did not impact on BXA susceptibility. In mice, oral administration of BXM at 5 and 50 mg/kg twice a day for 5 days completely protected from a lethal A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) challenge, and reduced virus titers more than 2–3 log in the lungs. Furthermore, the potent therapeutic effects of BXM in mice were still observed when a higher virus dose was administered or treatment was delayed up to 48 hours post infection. These findings support further investigation of BXM for A(H7N9) treatment in humans.


Determining the Mutation Bias of Favipiravir in Influenza Virus Using Next-Generation Sequencing

Favipiravir is a broad-spectrum antiviral drug that may be used to treat influenza. Previous research has identified that favipiravir likely acts as a mutagen, but the precise mutation bias that favipiravir induces in influenza virus RNAs has not been described. Here, we use next-generation sequencing (NGS) with barcoding of individual RNA molecules to accurately and quantitatively detect favipiravir-induced mutations and to sample orders of magnitude more mutations than would be possible through Sanger sequencing. We demonstrate that favipiravir causes mutations and show that favipiravir primarily acts as a guanine analogue and secondarily as an adenine analogue resulting in the accumulation of transition mutations. We also use a standard NGS pipeline to show that the mutagenic effect of favipiravir can be measured by whole-genome sequencing of virus.

Optimizing T-705 (favipiravir) treatment of severe influenza B virus infection in the immunocompromised mouse model

Influenza B virus infections remain insufficiently studied and antiviral management in immunocompromised patients is not well defined. The treatment regimens for these high-risk patients, which have elevated risk of severe disease-associated complications, require optimization and can be partly addressed via animal models.

We examined the efficacy of monotherapy with the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor T-705 (favipiravir) in protecting genetically modified, permanently immunocompromised BALB scid mice against lethal infection with B/Brisbane/60/2008 (BR/08) virus. Beginning at 24 h post-infection, BALB scid mice received oral T-705 twice daily (10, 50 or 250 mg/kg/day) for 5 or 10 days.

T-705 had a dose-dependent effect on survival after BR/08 challenge, resulting in 100% protection at the highest dosages. With the 5 day regimens, dosages of 50 or 250 mg/kg/day reduced the peak lung viral titres within the treatment window, but could not efficiently clear the virus after completion of treatment. With the 10 day regimens, dosages of 50 or 250 mg/kg/day significantly suppressed virus replication in the lungs, particularly at 45 days post-infection, limiting viral spread and pulmonary pathology. No T-705 regimen decreased virus growth in the nasal turbinates of mice, which potentially contributed to the viral dynamics in the lungs. The susceptibility of influenza B viruses isolated from T-705-treated mice remained comparable to that of viruses from untreated control animals.

T-705 treatment is efficacious against lethal challenge with BR/08 virus in immunocompromised mice. The antiviral benefit was greatest when longer T-705 treatment was combined with higher dosages.

NA inhibitors and adamantanes

Incidence of antiviral drug resistance markers among human influenza A viruses in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 2005–2016

Two classes of antiviral drugs are available for influenza antiviral therapy: the adamantanes and the neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs). Due to the emergence of adamantane-resistant variants, the use of these drugs has been largely limited in the world. The NAIs became the drugs of choice for treatment of influenza A infections. However, amino acid substitutions in the NA protein might lead to reduced sensitivity to NAIs.The frequency and distribution of matrix protein 2 (M2) and neuraminidase (NA) variants which confer resistance to antiviral drugs was investigated in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) between 2005 and 2016. A total of 314 M2 and 1209 NA protein sequences from influenza A/H1N1, A/H1N1pdm09, A/H3N2, and A/H5N1 available in the public database were analyzed.Eighty-six percent of the influenza A viruses detected in the EMR were resistant to adamantanes, among which, H3 strains exhibited the highest (95.32%) level of adamantane resistance. Approximately 98.51% (265/269) of influenza A/H1N1 and H3N2 resistant viruses had the S31N substitution in their M2 sequences. The V27A mutation was the only resistance marker found in A/H5N1 viruses and was detected at a frequency of 7.40% among the investigated viruses. Other resistant mutations L26F, A30T, G34E, and L38F were not detected in any of the variants. We found that 2.81% (n = 34) of the detected NA sequences from influenza A viruses possessed at least one NAI-resistant mutation and the vast majority of resistant viruses 79.41% (27/34) bear the H274Y mutation. The frequency of NAI-resistant viruses was 3.29% (24/729) for the H1N1pdm09, 10.64% (5/47) for the seasonal H1N1, and 4.06% (5/123) for H5N1 viruses. None of the H3N2 viruses analyzed during the study period were resistant to NAIs.Our study reveals the emergence and spread of antiviral drug resistant influenza A viruses in the EMR and emphasizes the importance of continuous surveillance to maintain the effective use of the current antivirals.


Community spread and late season increased incidence of oseltamivir‐resistant influenza A(H1N1) viruses in Norway 2016

Antiviral resistance in Norwegian influenza viruses is rare. Only one A(H1N1)pdm09 virus from May 2015 had been found resistant to oseltamivir since the introduction of these viruses in 2009.  Read more


In Vitro and In Vivo Characterization of Novel Neuraminidase Substitutions in Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Identified Using Laninamivir-Mediated In Vitro Selection

IMPORTANCE With the widespread emergence of NAI-resistant influenza virus strains, continuous monitoring of mutations that confer antiviral resistance is needed. Laninamivir is the most recently approved NAI in several countries; few data exist related to the in vitro selection of viral mutations conferring resistance to laninamivir. Thus, we screened and identified substitutions conferring resistance to laninamivir by random mutagenesis of the NA gene of the 2009 pandemic influenza [A(H1N1)pdm09] virus strain followed by deep sequencing of the laninamivir-selected variants. We found several novel substitutions in NA (D199E and P458T) in an A(H1N1)pdm09 background which conferred resistance to NAIs and which had an impact on viral fitness. Our study highlights the importance of continued surveillance for potential antiviral-resistant variants and the development of alternative therapeutics.


In Vitro Properties and Virulence of Contemporary Recombinant Influenza B Viruses Harboring Mutations of Cross-Resistance to Neuraminidase Inhibitors

Three neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs: Oseltamivir, zanamivir and peramivir) are currently approved in many countries for the treatment of influenza A and B infections. The emergence of influenza B viruses (IBVs) containing mutations of cross-resistance to these NAIs constitutes a serious clinical threat. Herein, we used a reverse genetics system for the current B/Phuket/3073/2013 vaccine strain to investigate the impact on in vitro properties and virulence of H136N, R152K, D198E/N, I222T and N294S NA substitutions (N2 numbering), reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) as clinical markers of reduced or highly-reduced inhibition (RI/HRI) to multiple NAIs. Recombinant viruses were tested by NA inhibition assays. Their replicative capacity and virulence were evaluated in ST6GalI-MDCK cells and BALB/c mice, respectively. All NA mutants (excepted D198E/N) showed RI/HRI phenotypes against ≥ 2 NAIs. These mutants grew to comparable titers of the recombinant wild-type (WT) IBV in vitro, and some of them (H136N, I222T and N294S mutants) induced more weight loss and mortality in BALB/c mice in comparison to the recombinant WT IBV. These results demonstrate that, in contemporary IBVs, some NA mutations may confer RI/HRI phenotypes to existing NAIs without altering the viral fitness. This reinforces the need for development of novel antiviral strategies with different mechanisms of action.

Untargeted metabolomics analysis of the upper respiratory tract of ferrets following influenza A virus infection and oseltamivir treatment

Influenza is a highly contagious respiratory disease that causes high global morbidity and mortality each year. The dynamics of an influenza infection on the host metabolism, and how metabolism is altered in response to neuraminidase inhibitor drug therapy, is still in its infancy but of great importance.We aim to investigate the suitability of ferret nasal wash samples for metabolomics-based analysis and characterization of influenza infections and oseltamivir treatment.Virological and metabolic analyses were performed on nasal wash samples collected from ferrets treated with oseltamivir or a placebo. Untargeted metabolomics was performed using a gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometery (GC-MS) based protocol that comprised a retention time (RT) locked method and the use of a commercial metabolomics library.Ferret activity was reduced at 2–3 days post infection, which coincided with the highest influenza viral titre. The metabolomics data indicated a shift in metabolism during various stages of infection. The neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir created considerable downregulation of energy center metabolites (glucose, sucrose, glycine and glutamine), which generated high levels of branched amino acids. This further increased branched amino acid degradation and deregulation via glycerate-type intermediates and biosynthesis of fatty acids in oseltamivir-treated animals where abrogated weight loss was observed. Metabolomics was used to profile influenza infection and antiviral drug treatment in ferrets. This has the potential to provide indicators for the early diagnosis of influenza infection and assess the effectiveness of drug therapies.


Investigational antivirals

Combined effect of anti‐high‐mobility group box‐1 monoclonal antibody and peramivir against influenza A virus‐induced pneumonia in mice

Human pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus causes significant morbidity and mortality with severe acute lung injury due to the excessive inflammatory reaction, even with neuraminidase inhibitor use. The anti‐inflammatory effect of anti‐high‐mobility group box‐1 (HMGB1) monoclonal antibody (mAb) against influenza pneumonia has been reported. In this study, we evaluated the combined effect of anti‐HMGB1 mAb and peramivir against pneumonia induced by influenza A (H1N1) virus in mice. Nine‐week‐old male C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with H1N1 and treated with intramuscularly administered peramivir at 2 and 3 days post‐infection (dpi). The anti‐HMGB1 mAb or a control mAb was administered at 2, 3, and 4 dpi. Survival rates were assessed, and lung lavage and pathological analyses were conducted at 5 and 7 dpi. The combination of peramivir with the anti‐HMGB1 mAb significantly improved survival rate whereas the anti‐HMGB1 mAb alone did not affect virus proliferation in the lungs. This combination therapy also significantly ameliorated histopathological changes, neutrophil infiltration, and macrophage aggregation by inhibiting HMGB1, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress. Fluorescence immunostaining showed that the anti‐HMGB1 mAb inhibited HMGB1 translocation from type I alveolar epithelial cells. In summary, combining anti‐HMGB1 with conventional anti‐influenza therapy might be useful against severe influenza virus infection.

Identification, design and synthesis of novel pyrazolopyridine influenza virus nonstructural protein 1 antagonists

Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) plays a crucial function in the replication, spread, and pathogenesis of influenza virus by inhibiting the host innate immune response. Here we report the discovery and optimization of novel pyrazolopyridine NS1 antagonists that can potently inhibit influenza A/PR/8/34 replication in MDCK cells, rescue MDCK cells from cytopathic effects of seasonal influenza A strains, reverse NS1-dependent inhibition of IFN-β gene expression, and suppress the slow growth phenotype in NS1-expressing yeast. These pyrazolopyridines will enable researchers to investigate NS1 function during infection and how antagonists can be utilized in the next generation of treatments for influenza infection.

Novel influenza inhibitors designed to target PB1 interactions with host importin RanBP5

In search of novel targets for influenza inhibitors, a site on PB1 was selected for its high conservation and probable interaction with a host protein, RanBP5, that is key to nuclear import of PB1, where it complexes with PB2, PA, and NP to transcribe viral RNA. Docking with libraries of drug-like compounds led to a selection of five candidates that bound tightly and with a pose likely to inhibit protein binding. These were purchased and tested in vitro, found to be active, and then one was synthetically expanded to explore the structure-activity relationship. The top candidates had a carboxylic acid converted to an ester and electron-withdrawing substituents added to a phenyl group in the original structure. Resistance was slow to develop, but cytotoxicity was moderately high. Nuclear localization of PB1 and in vitro polymerase activity were both strongly inhibited.

Replication competent, 10-segmented influenza viruses as antiviral therapeutics

Influenza A viruses (IAVs) encode their genome as eight negative sense RNA segments. During viral assembly, the failure to package all eight segments, or packaging of a mutated segment, renders the resultant virion incompletely infectious. It is known that the accumulation of these defective particles can limit viral disease by interfering with the spread of fully infectious particles. In order to harness this phenomenon therapeutically, we defined which viral packaging signals were amenable to duplication and developed a viral genetic platform which allowed the production of replication competent IAVs that package up to two additional artificial genome segments for a total of 10 segments. These artificial genome segments are capable of acting as decoy segments that, when packaged by wild-type (WT) viruses, lead to the production of non-infectious viral particles. Despite 10-segmented viruses being able to replicate and spread in vivo, these genomic modifications render the viruses avirulent. Excitingly, administration of 10-segmented viruses, both prophylactically and therapeutically, was able to rescue animals from normally lethally influenza virus infections. Thus, 10-segmented influenza viruses represent a potent anti-influenza biological therapy that targets the strain-independent process of viral assembly to slow the kinetics of productive viral spread and therefore limit viral disease.

Repurposing of Drugs as Novel Influenza Inhibitors From Clinical Gene Expression Infection Signatures

Influenza virus infections remain a major and recurrent public health burden. The intrinsic ever-evolving nature of this virus, the suboptimal efficacy of current influenza inactivated vaccines, as well as the emergence of resistance against a limited antiviral arsenal, highlight the critical need for novel therapeutic approaches. In this context, the aim of this study was to develop and validate an innovative strategy for drug repurposing as host-targeted inhibitors of influenza viruses and the rapid evaluation of the most promising candidates in Phase II clinical trials. We exploited in vivo global transcriptomic signatures of infection directly obtained from a patient cohort to determine a shortlist of already marketed drugs with newly identified, host-targeted inhibitory properties against influenza virus. The antiviral potential of selected repurposing candidates was further evaluated in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo. Our strategy allowed the selection of a shortlist of 35 high potential candidates out of a rationalized computational screening of 1,309 FDA-approved bioactive molecules, 31 of which were validated for their significant in vitro antiviral activity. Our in vivo and ex vivo results highlight diltiazem, a calcium channel blocker currently used in the treatment of hypertension, as a promising option for the treatment of influenza infections. Additionally, transcriptomic signature analysis further revealed the so far undescribed capacity of diltiazem to modulate the expression of specific genes related to the host antiviral response and cholesterol metabolism. Finally, combination treatment with diltiazem and virus-targeted oseltamivir neuraminidase inhibitor further increased antiviral efficacy, prompting rapid authorization for the initiation of a Phase II clinical trial. This original, host-targeted, drug repurposing strategy constitutes an effective and highly reactive process for the rapid identification of novel anti-infectious drugs, with potential major implications for the management of antimicrobial resistance and the rapid response to future epidemic or pandemic (re)emerging diseases for which we are still disarmed.


The clinically licensed antifungal drug itraconazole inhibits influenza virus in vitro and in vivo

Influenza A virus (IAV) is a common pathogen of respiratory disease. The IAV-induced seasonal epidemics and the sporadic pandemics are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, effective protection and therapy for IAV infections is an important challenge in countering this public health threat. Because vaccinations only protect against known circulating strains, and the currently available antivirals pose the risk of resistance formation, drugs targeting host cell factors needed for viral replication offer a promising therapeutic approach. In this study, we describe the use of the antifungal therapeutics posaconazole and itraconazole in the therapy of IAV. We show that both drugs efficiently inhibit the propagation of IAV in the cell culture model without being cytotoxic. The mode of action is probably based on several targets and includes both a priming of the interferon response and the induced imbalance of cellular cholesterol. The antiviral effect of itraconazole could be confirmed in the mouse model, where the administration of itraconazole led to a drastic reduction in mortality and a significant increase in the survival rate. Thus, our data indicate a promising therapeutic potential of at least itraconazole in influenza therapy.

Clinical studies

Safety and efficacy of monoclonal antibody VIS410 in adults with uncomplicated influenza A infection: Results from a randomized, double-blind, phase-2, placebo-controlled study


VIS410, a broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody that binds the hemagglutinin stem of influenza A viruses, was safe and efficacious in a human H1N1 virus challenge study. This study evaluated the safety and tolerability of VIS410 in non-hospitalized adult patients with uncomplicated influenza A.


Patients 18 to 65 years of age with symptom onset within 72 h were randomized 1:1:1 to receive a single intravenous infusion of VIS410 4000 mg, 2000 mg, or placebo. Neuraminidase inhibitor therapy was prohibited. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were evaluated up to 100 days post-infusion. Influenza symptoms were assessed daily for 10 days using the FLU-PRO tool. Nasopharyngeal virus shedding was assessed by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and viral culture through Day 7.


Of the 150 patients randomized, 148 received study drug, and 138 were confirmed influenza A positive. Median age was 42 years; median time from symptom onset to treatment was 42 h; 93% had influenza A subtype H3N2.


TEAEs, most commonly diarrhea of mild severity, were dose-related, occurring in 55%, 35%, and 24% of the 4000 mg, 2000 mg, and placebo patients, respectively. Two serious adverse events occurred, both in placebo patients.

Symptom analyses

Baseline FLU-PRO symptom scores were balanced among groups. Mean scores were lower by Days 3 and 4 in the pooled VIS410 treatment group versus placebo (p < 0.023), with a tendency toward faster resolution by Kaplan-Meier analysis.

Virology analyses

VIS410 was associated with reduced median nasopharyngeal viral load TCID50 AUCDay7(days × log10 TCID50/mL) (3.66 pooled VIS410 vs 4.78 placebo, p = 0.08) and in the subset of patients with baseline hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titer ≤40 (overall, 74% of patients) was significantly reduced vs placebo (4.218 pooled VIS410 vs 6.152 placebo, p = 0.009). Kaplan-Meier estimated time to resolution of viral shedding was reduced (1.9 vs 3.6 days, p = 0.03) in VIS410 treated patients. There was a trend toward greater proportion of culture-negative patients by Day 3 (66.7% vs 51.1%, p = 0.11); when this analysis was limited to the subset of patients with positive baseline cultures, this difference became more pronounced (63.2% vs 42.5%, p = 0.053). No differences were observed in nasopharyngeal influenza qRT-PCR profiles, which represent both live and neutralized virus.

Interpretation: VIS410 was safe and well tolerated in adults with uncomplicated influenza A, with favorable effects on symptom resolution and virus replication.

Trial registration: Clinical Trials: NCT02989194.



Nitazoxanide inhibits paramyxovirus replication by targeting the Fusion protein folding: role of glycoprotein-specific thiol oxidoreductase ERp57.

Paramyxoviridae, a large family of enveloped viruses harboring a nonsegmented negative-sense RNA genome, include important human pathogens as measles, mumps, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza viruses, and henipaviruses, which cause some of the deadliest emerging zoonoses. There is no effective antiviral chemotherapy for most of these pathogens. Paramyxoviruses evolved a sophisticated membrane-fusion machine consisting of receptor-binding proteins and the fusion F-protein, critical for virus infectivity. Herein we identify the antiprotozoal/antimicrobial nitazoxanide as a potential anti-paramyxovirus drug targeting the F-protein. We show that nitazoxanide and its circulating-metabolite tizoxanide act at post-entry level by provoking Sendai virus and RSV F-protein aggregate formation, halting F-trafficking to the host plasma membrane. F-protein folding depends on ER-resident glycoprotein-specific thiol-oxidoreductase ERp57 for correct disulfide-bond architecture. We found that tizoxanide behaves as an ERp57 non-competitive inhibitor; the putative drug binding-site was located at the ERp57-b/b' non-catalytic domains interface. ERp57-silencing mimicked thiazolide-induced F-protein alterations, suggesting an important role of this foldase in thiazolides anti-paramyxovirus activity. Nitazoxanide is used in the clinic as a safe and effective antiprotozoal/antimicrobial drug; its antiviral activity was shown in patients infected with hepatitis-C virus, rotavirus and influenza viruses. Our results now suggest that nitazoxanide may be effective also against paramyxovirus infection.


Verdinexor (KPT-335), a Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export, Reduces Respiratory Syncytial Virus Replication In Vitro.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of hospitalization of infants and young children, causing considerable respiratory disease and repeat infections that may lead to chronic respiratory conditions such as asthma, wheezing, and bronchitis. RSV causes ∼34 million new episodes of lower respiratory tract illness (LRTI) in children younger than 5 years of age, with >3 million hospitalizations due to severe RSV-associated LRTI. The standard of care is limited to symptomatic relief as there are no approved vaccines and few effective antiviral drugs; thus, a safe and efficacious RSV therapeutic is needed. Therapeutic targeting of host proteins hijacked by RSV to facilitate replication is a promising antiviral strategy as targeting the host reduces the likelihood of developing drug resistance. The nuclear export of the RSV M protein, mediated by the nuclear export protein exportin 1 (XPO1), is crucial for RSV assembly and budding. Inhibition of RSV M protein export by leptomycin B correlated with reduced RSV replication in vitro In this study, we evaluated the anti-RSV efficacy of Verdinexor (KPT-335), a small molecule designed to reversibly inhibit XPO1-mediated nuclear export. KPT-335 inhibited XPO1-mediated transport and reduced RSV replication in vitro KPT-335 was effective against RSV A and B strains and reduced viral replication following prophylactic or therapeutic administration. Inhibition of RSV replication by KPT-335 was due to a combined effect of reduced XPO1 expression, disruption of the nuclear export of RSV M protein, and inactivation of the NF-κB signaling pathway.IMPORTANCE RSV is an important cause of LRTI in infants and young children for which there are no suitable antiviral drugs offered. We evaluated the efficacy of KPT-335 as an anti-RSV drugand show that KPT-335 inhibits XPO1-mediated nuclear export, leading to nuclear accumulation of RSV M protein and reduction in RSVlevels. KPT-335 treatment also resulted in inhibition of proinflammatory pathways, which has important implications for its effectiveness in vivo.



Drug repurposing approaches for the treatment of influenza viral infection: Reviving old drugs to fight against a long-lived enemy

Influenza viruses still constitute a real public health problem today. To cope with the emergence of new circulating strains, but also the emergence of resistant strains to classic antivirals, it is necessary to develop new antiviral approaches. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art of current antiviral options against influenza infection, with particular focus on the recent advances of anti-influenza drug repurposing strategies and their potential therapeutic, regulatory and economic benefits. The review will illustrate the multiple ways to reposition molecules for the treatment of influenza, from adventitious discovery to in silico-based screening. These novel antiviral molecules, many of which targeting the host cell, in combination with conventional antiviral agents targeting the virus, will ideally enter the clinics and reinforce the therapeutic arsenal to combat influenza virus infections.


New therapies for acute RSV infections: where are we?

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is one of the main causes of infant hospitalization and mortality. The single-stranded RNA virus codes for 11 proteins of which the F protein, a surface epitope responsible for RSV fusion, is the most targeted for developing antiviralmedicines and vaccines. The peak of symptoms occurs around day 4 to 6 of illness and the airway obstruction is merely caused by the host immune inflammatory response. Risk factors for severe bronchiolitis are prematurity, comorbidity, and/or being immunocompromised. At present, there are no curative therapies available for RSV infections and treatment is supportive only. Development of new antiviral medicines is however promising. The aim of this review is to give a summary of the most important new antiviral therapies in clinical development for RSV infection and to explain their mode of action. We therefore performed a literature search on this topic.Conclusion: There are currently at least eight antivirals being investigated in clinical trials. They all use different approaches to either focus on preventing viral fusion with host cells or inhibiting virus replication. Some target RSV surface epitopes like the F protein to halt fusion, others aim for RNA chain termination, while small interfering RNAs downregulate viral protein production. What is known: • RSV bronchiolitis is a very important pediatric disease as it is one of the main causes of infant hospitalization and mortality. By the age of 2 years, 95% of all the infants worldwide will have been infected. • The only recommended therapy is supportive since there are no existing curative therapies yet. What this study adds: • This review gives an overview of the current progress in the research field of RSV antivirals with background information on their mode of action.


Novel antiviral drug discovery strategies to tackle drug-resistant mutants of influenza virus strains

Introduction: The emergence of drug-resistant influenza virus strains highlights the need for new antiviral therapeutics to combat future pandemic outbreaks as well as continuing seasonal cycles of influenza.

Areas covered: This review summarizes the mechanisms of current FDA-approved anti-influenza drugs and patterns of resistance to those drugs. It also discusses potential novel targets for broad-spectrum antiviral drugs and recent progress in novel drug design to overcome drug resistance in influenza.

Expert opinion: Using the available structural information about drug-binding pockets, research is currently underway to identify molecular interactions that can be exploited to generate new antiviral drugs. Despite continued efforts, antivirals targeting viral surface proteins like HA, NA, and M2, are all susceptible to developing resistance. Structural information on the internal viral polymerase complex (PB1, PB2, and PA) provides a new avenue for influenza drug discovery. Host factors, either at the initial step of viral infection or at the later step of nuclear trafficking of viral RNP complex, are being actively pursued to generate novel drugs with new modes of action, without resulting in drug resistance.